• Holt, S & Yuill, N (2014) Facilitating Other-Awareness in Low-Functioning Children with Autism and Typically-Developing Preschoolers Using Dual-Control Technology Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 236-248.
  • Yuill, N, Hinske, S., Williams, S.E. & Leith, G. (2014) How getting noticed helps getting on: Successful attention capture doubles children’s cooperative play. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 418.



  • Yuill, N., & Rogers, Y. (2012). Mechanisms for collaboration: A design and evaluation framework for multi-user interfaces. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI), 19(1), 1.
  • Farr, W., Yuill, N., & Hinske, S. (2012). An autmented toy and social interaction in children with autism. International Journal of Arts and Technology, 5, 104-125.


  • Marshall, P., Morris, R., Rogers, Y., Kreitmayer, S. and Davies, M. (2011) Rethinking ‘multi-user’: an in-the-wild study of how groups approach a walk-up-and-use tabletop interface. In Proceedings of CHI 2011, Vancouver, Canada, 3033–3042. [download]
  • Marshall, P., Rogers, Y. and Pantidi, N. (2011) Using F-formations to analyse spatial patterns of interaction in physical environments. InProceedings of CSCW 2011, Hangzhou, China, 445–454. [download]
  • Rick, J. (2011). Collaborating across multiple linked representation. Position paper for “Multiple Perspectives on Multiple Representations (MUPEMURE)” workshop, STELLAR Alpine Rendez-Vous 2011. Massif des Aravis, France. [pdf]
  • Rick, J., Marshall, P. and Yuill, N. (2011). Beyond one-size-fits-all: How interactive tabletops support collaborative learning. In Proceedings of IDC 2011, to appear. ACM Press.
  • Yuill, N., Rogers, Y. and Rick, J. (2011). Pass the iPad: Comparing collaboration on paper and screen. Position paper for “Next Generation of HCI and Education” workshop, CHI 2011, Vancouver. [pdf]
  • Zaman, B., Abeele, V. V., Markopoulos, P. and Marshall, P. (in press) Editorial: The evolving field of tangible interaction for children: the challenge of empirical validation. Special issue of Personal and Ubiquitous Computing on “Tangible User Interfaces and Children”.


  • Evans, M. A. and Rick, J. (2010). Collaborative learning with interactive surfaces: An interdisciplinary agenda. ICLS 2010 Workshop, Chicago, IL. [download]
  • Farr, W. (2010). Personalised technology is the future for autism. Journal of Assistive Technology, 4(1). [download]
  • Farr, W., Yuill, N., and Raffle, H. (2010). Social benefits of a tangible user interface for children with Autistic Spectrum Conditions. Autism: The International Journal of Theory and Practice, 14(3):237–252. [download]
  • Fleck, R., Yuill, N., Bonnett, V., Rick, J., Marshall, P. and Rogers, Y. (2010). Mysteries of collaboration: Supporting family collaboration with shareable technology. Presented at the BPS Developmental Sectionconference, Goldsmith’s College, London.
  • Hazlewood, W., Dalton, N. S., Marshall, P., Rogers, Y. and Hertrich, S. (2010) Bricolage and Consultation: A case study to inform the development of large-scale prototypes for HCI research. In Proceedings of Designing Interactive Systems (DIS ’10), Aarhus, Denmark, 380-389
  • Holt, S. and Yuill, N. (2010). When being wrong is right! Effect of adult or child partner on children’s awareness of the other in social interactions in dual and single-user PC tasks. Presented at the BPS Developmental Sectionconference, Goldsmith’s College, London.
  • Marshall, P., Cheng, P. and Luckin, R. (2010) Tangibles in the balance: a discovery-learning task with physical or graphical materials. In Proceedings of Tangible, Embedded and Embodied Interaction (TEI ’10), Boston, 153-160.
  • Rick, J. (2010). Performance optimizations of virtual keyboards for stroke-based text entry on a touch-based tabletop. In Proceedings of UIST 2010, pages 77–86. ACM Press. [download]
  • Rick, J. (2010). Quadratic: Manipulating algebraic expressions on an interactive tabletop. In Proceedings of IDC 2010, pages 304–307. ACM Press. [download]
  • Rick, J. (2010). Six applications for interactive tabletops. Position paper for “Collaborative Learning with Interactive Surfaces: An Interdisciplinary Agenda” workshop, ICLS 2010, Chicago, IL. [pdf]
  • Rick, J., Francois, P., Fields, B., Fleck, R., Yuill, N. and Carr, A. (2010). Lo-fi prototyping to design interactive-tabletop applications for children. InProceedings of IDC 2010, pages 138–146. ACM Press. [download]
  • Rogers, Y., Connelly, K., Hazlewood, W. and Tedesco, W. (2010) Enhancing learning: a study of how mobile devices can facilitate sensemaking. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, to appear. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y., Hazlewood, W., Marshall, P., Dalton, N. S., and Hertrich, S. (2010) Ambient Influence: Can Twinkly Lights Lure and Abstract Representations Trigger Behavioral Change? In Proceedings of Ubicomp 2010, Copenhagen, Denmark, 261-270.
  • Yuill, N. (2010). Playing music to a cow: Using shareable technology to investigate and support collaboration between generations. Presented at theBPS Developmental Section conference, Goldsmith’s College, London.
  • Yuill, N., Rogers, Y., and Bonnett, V. (2010). Families in flocks: Intergenerational sharing in a tabletop game illustrating Tragedy of the Commons. Presented at the BPS Developmental Section conference, Goldsmith’s College, London.


  • Aytac, A. and Yuill, N. (2009). ‘Your half is bigger than mine’: Motivating children to understand fractions. Presented at the Artificial Intelligence and Education conference, Brighton, UK.
  • Carr, A. and Yuill, N. (2009). How interactive tabletops affect self-regulation and joint attention in children’s collaborative problem-solving. Presented at the BPS Developmental Section conference, Nottingham, UK.
  • Farr, W. and Yuill, N. (2009). Contingency of interactive play patterns for autistic children from a tangible user interface. Position paper for “What technology tells us about typical and atypical development” symposium,BPS Developmental Section conference, Nottingham, UK.
  • Farr, W., Raffle, H. and Yuill, N. (2009). Collaborative benefits of a tangible interface for autistic children. Position paper for “Tangibles for Children” workshop, CHI ’09, Boston, MA.
  • Fleck, R., Rogers, Y., Yuill, N., Marshall, P., Carr, A., Rick, J. and Bonnett, V. (2009) Actions speak loudly with words: Unpacking collaboration around the table. In Proceedings of ITS ’09. [pdf]
  • Harris, A., Rick, J., Bonnett, V., Yuill, N., Fleck, R., Marshall, P. and Rogers, Y. (2009). Around the table: Are multiple-touch surfaces better than single-touch for children’s collaborative interactions? In Proceedings of CSCL 2009, pages 335–344. ISLS. [pdf]
  • Harris, A., Yuill, N., Marshall, P., Fleck, R., Rick, J. and Rogers, Y. (2009). Using novel technology to support children’s collaborative interaction during a planning task. Talk presented at The Society for Research in Child Development Biennial Meeting 2009, Denver, CO. [video]
  • Hinske, S., Lampe, M., Price, S., Yuill, N., and Langheinrich, M. (2009). Kingdom of the knights: Evaluation of a seamlessly augmented toy environment for playful learning. In Proceedings of IDC 2009, pages 202–205. ACM Press. [download]
  • Holt, S. (2009). Using joint control software to assess active awareness of other in children with autism. Presented at the BPS Developmental Sectionconference, Nottingham, UK.
  • Kern, D., Marshall, P., Hornecker, E., Rogers, Y., and Schmidt, A. (2009) Enhancing navigation information with tactile output embedded into the steering wheel. In Proceedings of Pervasive Computing 2009, pages 42–58. Nara, Japan. [pdf]
  • Marshall, P., Fleck, R., Harris, A. Rick, J., Hornecker, E., Rogers, Y., Yuill, N. and Dalton, N. S. (2009) Fighting for control: Children’s embodied interactions when using physical and digital representations. In Proceedings of CHI ’09, pages 2149–2152. Boston. [pdf]
  • Pantidi, N., Rogers, Y. and Robinson, H. (2009) Is the writing on the wall for tabletops? In Proceedings of Interact 2009, pages 125–137. Uppsala. [pdf]
  • Rick, J., Harris, A., Marshall, P., Fleck, R., Yuill, N. and Rogers, Y. (2009). Children designing together on a multi-touch tabletop: An analysis of spatial orientation and user interactions. In Proceedings of IDC 2009, pages 106–114. ACM Press. [pdf]
  • Rick, J., Rogers, Y., Haig, C. and Yuill, N. (2009) Learning by doing with shareable interfaces. Children, Youth & Environments, 19(1):321–342. [download]
  • Rogers, Y., Lim, Y., Hazlewood, W. and Marshall, P. (2009) Equal opportunities: Do shareable interfaces promote more group participation than single user displays? Human-Computer Interaction, 24(2):79–116. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y. and Price, S. (2009) How mobile technologies are changing the way children learn. In A. Druin, (Ed.) On the Move: Children, Learning and Technology. Elsevier, pp. 3–22. [pdf]
  • Sellen, A., Rogers, Y., Harper, R. and Rodden, T. (2009) Reflecting human values in the digital age. Communications of the ACM, 52(3):58–66. [pdf]
  • Yuill, N. (2009). The relation between ambiguity understanding and metalinguistic discussion of joking in good and poor comprehenders: potential for intervention and possible processes of change. First Language, 29:65–79. [pdf]
  • Yuill, N., Harris, A., Bonnett, V., Rick, J., Fleck, R., Marshall, P. and Rogers, Y. (2009). The ‘I did it!’ bias in multi-touch tabletops: When equity is not enough. Position paper for “Tabletops for Education and Training” workshop, STELLAR Alpine Rendez-Vous 2009. Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. [pdf]
  • Yuill, N., Pearce, D., Kerawalla, C., Harris, A. and Luckin, R. (2009). How technology for comprehension training can support conversation towards the joint construction of meaning. Journal of Research in Reading, 32(1):109–125. [pdf]


  • Farr, W., Raffle, H., and Yuill, N. (2008). Tangible interface technology to aid collaboration in individuals with autism. Position paper for Shareable Interfaces for Learning Workshop 2008, Brighton, UK. [doc]
  • Farr, W. and Yuill, N. (2008). Educational benefits for autism from a tangible user interface (TUI). Presented at the BPS Education Sectionconference, Milton Keynes, UK.
  • Farr, W. and Yuill, N. (2008). Using IT to enhance collaboration in autism. Presented at the BPS Developmental Section conference, Oxford Brookes University. [txt]
  • Harris, A., Bonnett, V., Fleck, R., Yuill, N., Marshall, P., Rick, J., and Rogers, Y. (2008). The role of multiple versus single touch input on children’s collaborative participation. Presented at the BPS Education Section conference, Milton Keynes, UK.
  • Harris, A., Yuill, N., and Fleck, R. (2008). Supporting peer collaboration in the classroom through novel technology. Presented at the BPS Developmental Section conference, Oxford Brookes University. [pdf]
  • Harris, A., Yuill, N., and Luckin, R. (2008). The influence of context-specific and dispositional achievement goals on children’s paired collaborative interaction. The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 78(3):355–374. [download]
  • Holt, S. and Yuill, N. (2008). Facilitating social interaction and awareness of a partner in children with autistic spectrum conditions: Effects of a dual control paradigm. Presented at the BPS Developmental Section conference, Oxford Brookes University. [rtf]
  • Hornecker, E. (2008) Die Rückkehr des Sensorischen: Tangible Interfaces und Tangible Interaction. In Hans Dieter Hellige, editor, Engpass Mensch-Computer-Interface. Historische, aktuelle und zukünftige Lösungsansätze für die Computerbedienung. Transcript Verlag, in press. [pdf]
  • Hornecker, E. (2008) “I don’t understand it either, but it is cool”: Visitor interactions with a multi-touch table in a museum. In Proceedings of TABLETOP ’08, pages 121–128. IEEE. [pdf]
  • Hornecker E. (2008) Tangible interaction – An inclusive perspective.form+zweck 22, 40:78–85. [pdf]
  • Hornecker, E., Marshall, P., Dalton, N. and Rogers, Y. (2008) Collaboration and interference: Awareness with mice or touch input. In Proceedings of CSCW ’08, pages 167–176. [pdf]
  • Kerawalla, L., Pearce, D., Yuill, N., Luckin, R., and Harris, A. (2008) “I’m keeping those there, are you?” The role of a new user interface paradigm—Separate Control of Shared Space (SCOSS)—in the collaborative decision-making process. Computers & Education, 1:193–206. [pdf]
  • Lim, Y. and Rogers, Y. (2008) A framework and an environment for collaborative analysis of user experience. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 24(6):529–555. [download]
  • Marshall, P., Hornecker, E., Morris, R. Dalton, N. and Rogers, Y. (2008) When the fingers do the talking: A study of group participation with varying constraints to a tabletop interface. In Proceedings of TABLETOP ’08, pages 37–44. IEEE. [pdf]
  • Marzouq, S. and Yuill, N. (2008). The role of social context in influencing children’s learning motivation in a collaborative task. Presented at the BPS Education Section conference, Milton Keynes, UK.
  • Meho, L. and Rogers, Y. (2008) Citation counting, citation ranking, and h-index of human-computer interaction researchers: A comparison between Scopus and Web of Science. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. [pdf]
  • Morris, R., Marshall, P. and Rogers, Y. (2008) Analysing fluid interaction across multiple displays. In Workshop Proceedings of AVI 2008, “Designing Multi-Touch Interaction Techniques for Coupled Public and Private Displays (PPD 08)”, Naples, Italy. [pdf]
  • Pantidi, N., Robinson, H. and Rogers, Y. (2008) Can technology-rich spaces support multiple uses? In Proceedings of HCI 2008, pages 135–138. [pdf]
  • Rick, J., Dalton, S., Hornecker, E., Marshall, P., Pantidi, N., Morris, R., Rogers, Y., Farr, W., Fleck, R., Harris, A., and Yuill, N. (2008). Tabletop computing as educational technology. Position paper for Shareable Interfaces for Learning Workshop 2008, Brighton, UK. [pdf]
  • Rick, J. and Rogers, Y. (2008) From DigiQuilt to DigiTile: Adapting educational technology to a multi-touch table. In Proceedings of TABLETOP ’08, pages 79-86. IEEE. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y. (2008) Using external visualizations to extend and integrate learning in mobile and classroom settings. In J. Gilbert (ed.), Visualization: Theory and practice in science education. CUP. pp. 89–102. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y. (2008) When the external entered HCI: Designing effective representations. In T. Erickson and D. McDonald (Eds.) HCI Remixed, MIT Press. pp. 275–280.
  • Rogers, Y. (2008) Beyond comprehension: Using animations to foster interpretation and reflection. In R. Lowe and W. Schnotz (Eds.) Learning with Animation, CUP, Cambridge. pp. 286–304.
  • Rogers, Y. and Price, S. (2008) The role of mobile devices in facilitating collaborative inquiry in situ. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 3(3):209–229. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y. (2008) 57 varieties of activity theory. Interacting With Computers, 20(2):247–250.
  • Yuill, N. (2008). Visiting Joke City: How can talking about jokes foster metalinguistic awareness in poor comprehenders? In D. McNamara, editor,Reading Comprehension Strategies: Theories, Interventions and Technologies, pp. 325–345. LEA.
  • Yuill, N. (2008). The role of gestures in disambiguating meaning: relation to language comprehension skill. Presented at the BPS Developmental Sectionconference, Oxford Brookes University.
  • Yuill, N., Kerawalla, C., Pearce, D., Luckin, A., and Harris, A. (2008) Using technology to teach flexibility through peer discussion. In K. E. Cartwright, editor, Flexibility in Literacy Processes and Instructional Practice: Implications of Developing Representational Ability for Literacy Teaching and Learning. Guilford, UK. [pdf]


  • Dünser, A. and Hornecker, E. (2007) Lessons from an AR book study. InTEI’07: Proceedings of Tangible and Embedded Interaction, pages 179–182. ACM. [pdf]
  • Dünser, A. and Hornecker, E. (2007) An observational study of children interacting with an augmented story book. In Proceedings of Edutainment 2007, pages 305–315. Springer. [pdf]
  • Hornecker, E., Marshall, P., and Rogers, Y. (2007) Entry and access—How shareability comes about. In DPPI’07: Proceedings of Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces, pages 328–342. Helsinki. ACM. [pdf]
  • Marshall, P. (2007) Do tangible interfaces enhance learning? In Proceedings of TEI ’07, pages 163–170. ACM Press. [pdf]
  • Marshall, P., Rogers, Y., and Hornecker, E. (2007) Are tangible interfaces really any better than other kinds of interfaces? Position paper for CHI 2007 Workshop “Tangible User Interfaces in Context and Theory”. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y., Connelly, K., Tedesco, L., Hazlewood, W., Kurtz, A., Hall, B., Hursey, J., and Toscos, T. (2007) Why it’s worth the hassle: The value of in-situ studies when designing UbiComp. In J. Krumm et al., editors,Proceedings of UbiComp 2007, pages 336–353, LNCS 4717. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. [pdf]
  • Yuill, N., Strieth, S., Roake, C., Aspden, R., and Todd, B. (2007) Designing a playground for children with autistic spectrum disorders: Effects on playful peer interactions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37:1192-1196. [pdf]


  • Church, T., Hazlewood, W., and Rogers, Y. (2006) Around the table: Studies in co-located collaboration. In Adjunct Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Pervasive Computing. Vol. 207, Austrian Computer Society (OCG): Vienna, 2006. [mov]
  • Fleck, R. and Fitzpatrick, G., (2006) Supporting reflection with passive image capture. In Supplementary Proceedings of COOP’06, pages 41–48. Carry-le-Rouet, France. [pdf]
  • Halloran, J., Hornecker, E., Fitzpatrick, G., Weal, M., Millard, D., Michaelides, D., Cruikshank, D., and De Roure, D. (2006) Unfolding understandings: Co-designing UbiComp in situ, over time. In Proceedings of DIS 2006, pages 109–118. ACM Press. [pdf]
  • Halloran, J., Hornecker, E., Fitzpatrick, G., Weal, M., Millard, D., Michaelides, D., Cruikshank, D., and De Roure, D. (2006) The literacy fieldtrip: Using Ubicomp to support children’s creative writing. InProceedings of IDC 2006, pages 17–24. ACM Press. [pdf]
  • Hornecker, E. and Buur, J. (2006) Getting a grip on tangible interaction: A framework on physical space and social interaction. In Proceedings of CHI 2006, pages 437–446. Montreal, Canada. ACM. [pdf]
  • Hornecker, E. and Stifter, M. (2006) Learning from interactive museum installations about interaction design for public settings. In Proceedings of OzCHI 2006, pages 135–142. Sydney. ACM. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y. (2006) Moving on From Weiser’s Vision of Calm Computing: Engaging UbiComp Experiences. In P. Dourish et al., editors, Proceedings of UbiComp 2006, pages 404–421, LNCS 4206. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y., Lim, Y., and Hazlewood, W. (2006) Extending Tabletops to Support Flexible Collaborative Interactions. In Proceedings of Tabletop 2006, pages 71–78. IEEE. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y. and Muller, H. (2006) A framework for designing sensor-based interactions to promote exploration and reflection. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 64(1):1–15. [pdf]
  • Zagal, J.P., Rick, J., and Hsi, I. (2006) Collaborative games: Lessons learned from boardgames. Simulation & Gaming, 37:24–40. [pdf]


  • Farr, W. and Jacklin, A. (2005). The computer in the classroom, how useful is the computer as a medium for enhancing interaction with people with autistic spectrum disorder. British Journal of Special Educational Needs, 32(4). NASEN.
  • Hornecker, E. (2005) A Design Theme for Tangible Interaction: Embodied Facilitation. In E-CSCW’05: Proceedings of the 9th European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, pages 23–43. Kluwer/Springer. [pdf]
  • Jacklin, A. and Farr, W. (2005) The computer in the classroom: a medium for enhancing social interaction with young people with autistic spectrum disorders. British Journal of Educational Studies, 32:202–210. [pdf]
  • Kindberg, T., Spasojevic, M., Sellen, A., and Fleck, R., (2005) The ubiquitous camera: An in-depth study of cameraphone use. IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4(2):42–50. [pdf]
  • Rick, J. and Lamberty, K.K. (2005) Medium-based design: Extending a medium to create an exploratory learning environment. Interactive Learning Environments, 13(3):179–212. [pdf]


  • Brignull, H., Izadi, S., Fitzpatrick, G., Rogers, Y. and Rodden, T. (2004) The introduction of a shared interactive surface into a communal space. InProceedings of CSCW 2004, Chicago, November 2004, ACM, New York. pp. 49–59. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y. Hazlewood, W., Blevis, E. and Lim, Y. (2004) Finger talk: Collaborative decision-making using talk and fingertip interaction around a tabletop display. In CHI ’04: Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, pages 1271–1274. ACM, New York. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y. and Lindley, S. (2004) Collaborating around vertical and horizontal displays: Which way is best? Interacting with Computers, 16:1133–1152. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y., Price, S., Fitzpatrick, G., Fleck, R., Harris, E., Smith, H., Randell, C., Muller, H., O’Malley, C., Stanton, D., Thompson, M. and Weal, M. (2004) Ambient Wood: Designing new forms of digital augmentation for learning outdoors. In IDC 2004: Proceedings of Interaction Design and Children, pages 3–10. ACM, New York. [pdf]


  • Brignull, H. and Rogers, Y. (2003) Enticing people to interact with large public displays in public spaces. In Proceedings of INTERACT 2003, Zurich, pp. 17–24. [pdf]
  • Halloran, J., Rogers, Y., Rodden, T., and Taylor, I. (2003) Creating new user experiences to enhance collaboration. In Proceedings of INTERACT 2003, Zurich, pp. 479–486. [pdf]
  • Izadi, S, Brignull, H., Rodden, T., Rogers, Y. and Underwood, M. (2003) Dynamo: A public interactive surface supporting the cooperative sharing and exchange of media. In Proceedings of UIST 2003, Nov’03, Vancouver, ACM, pp. 159–168. [pdf]
  • Marshall, P., Price, S., and Rogers, Y. (2003) Conceptualising tangibles to support learning. Proceedings of Interaction Design and Children, ACM, pp. 101–110. [pdf]
  • Price, S., Rogers, Y., Stanton, D., and Smith, H. (2003) A new conceptual framework for CSCL: Supporting diverse forms of reflection through multiple interactions. In Proceedings of International Conference on CSCL’03, June 14–18th, Bergen, Norway, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp.513–522. [pdf]
  • Rodden, T., Rogers, Y., Halloran, J., and Taylor, I. (2003) Designing novel interactional workspaces to support face-to-face consultations. InProceedings of CHI’03, ACM, pp. 57–64. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y. and Brignull. H. (2003) Computational offloading: Supporting distributed team working through visually augmenting verbal communication. Proceedings of Cognitive Science Society Conference, July 2003, Boston, pp. 1011–1016. [pdf]


  • Price, S., Rogers, Y., Scaife, M., Stanton, D., and Neale, H. (2002) Using tangibles to support new ways of playing and learning. In Proceedings of Interaction Design for Children Conference 2002, Eindhoven, August 28–29th. Shaker Publishing, The Netherlands. pp. 88–92. [pdf]
  • Rogers, Y., Scaife, M., Harris, E., Phelps, T., Price, S., Smith, H., Muller, H., Randall, C., Moss, A., Taylor, I., Stanton, D., O’Malley, C., Corke, G., and Gabrielli, S. (2002) Things aren’t what they seem to be: Innovation through technology inspiration. In Proceedings of DIS’2002 Designing Interactive Systems, ACM, June 2002, London. pp. 373–379. [pdf]